The biodiversity data of the LIFE+ FAGUS are important nodes of a network on European forest biodiversity

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The LIFE+ FAGUS project adopted a multi-taxon approach, i.e. different taxonomic groups were sampled to assess their response to the concrete conservation actions. This approach is valued by several scientists since the effect of specific management practices may be completely different for different taxonomic groups.

The multi-taxonomic data of LIFE+ FAGUS were the starting point to establish a network of scientists and of information on European forest biodiversity that represents an important dissemination activity to be carried out after the end of the project. The sustainable management of forests, aimed at preserving both biodiversity and the services it supports, is a topic of primary importance for the whole European continent. However, a thorough scientific understanding of the trade-offs and synergies between forest management and multi-taxonomic diversity is still lacking, also due to the scattered and inadequate information on the distribution of forest biodiversity.

By merging forest biodiversity datasets deriving from different European projects, we established a network of European scientists working in France, Italy and Hungary, that combine existing structural and multi-taxonomic biodiversity data on deciduous European forests and that will contribute to overcome the problem of partial and fragmented data. The network includes five universities (Sapienza University of Rome, Università degli studi della Tuscia, Università degli Studi di Padova, University of Bologna, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) and two research centers (Hungarian Institute of Ecology and Botany, French

National Research Institute of Science and Technology for Environment and Agriculture).

This collaborative network built a Europe-wide database that is being used to test the following hypotheses:

·         a higher degree of forest structural heterogeneity results in higher levels of biological diversity for multiple taxonomic groups;

·         the existence of a substantial congruence in the response of different taxa to different levels of structural heterogeneity of forest systems.

Through this research we will be able to assess if managing forests for a higher structural heterogeneity is worth for a wide range of taxonomic groups.

Currently we collected information on 23 sites, for a total of more than 350 sampling units (see map) with information on forest structure and six taxonomic groups (saproxylic beetles, vascular plants epiphytic lichens, wood-inhabiting fungi, bryophytes, and birds).

The picture shows the distribution of study sites in Europe. Forest cover is indicated by green color (from the Joint Research Centre, the size of the dots is log-proportional to the number of plots at each site.

The deliverable "Manuale di Buone Pratiche per la gestione degli Habitat 9210* e 9220*" is now available.

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The deliverable has been written taking into consideration the experiences included within the "Action C" of the Lige Fagus project.
The deliverable is intented to be used by the subject matter expert of the forestry topic, as a reference for the sustainable management and habitat conservation and in particular for the apennine beech forests.
The manual is available within the "Download" section of this website or direclty using this link (Manuale di Buone Pratiche).

Fagus video-documentary final version now available!

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This is the final version of the Fagus project video-documentary.


The Project LIFE+ Fagus is close to its end

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On the 11th and 12th of July took place the final event during which the results of the project have been presented to the public.

On July the 11th the conference was held in the Department of Environmental Biology of Sapienza University of Rome. To this event participated 70 people including students, citizens, researchers, personnel of the Ministry of Environment, Land and Sea Protection, Carabinieri Forestali and other persons that have interest in the conservation of biodiversity within Natura 2000 areas.

After the greetings by the Department Director and the Presidents of the two National Parks involved in the project, the first part of the morning was dedicated to the description of the actions of the project with a special focus on the results that were achieved.

In particular, the results for vascular plants and saproxylic beetles were presented. With regards to plants, it was possible to highlight how their composition within the project areas is more diverse due to the creation of gaps carried out during the project. Very relevant are the results for saproxylic beetles with two species included in the annex II of the Habitats Directive, Rosalia alpina and Morimus asper, that were found in the project areas only after the concrete interventions actions. This result derives from the increase of the amount of deadwood that was found in the project areas. Concerning the monitoring of tree species, it was also found that the target species (yew, holly and silver fir) went through a certain increase.

During the second part of the conference, different experts presented topics relative to the conservation and the monitoring of biodiversity in forest habitats. Finally, also other LIFE projects were presented that applied sustainable strategies, mainly in forest habitats.

In particular, the presentation were relative to the MIPP project, which developed and tested standardized monitoring methods to evaluate the conservation status of insect species included in the annexes of the Habitats Directive, to the project CARABUS, that aimed at reduce the extinction threat to the species Carabus olympiae, to the project RESILFOR that pursued the spread of silver fir in the Apennines, and finally to the project GRANATHA, focused on enhancing the conservation status of bird species in moor habitats.

During the conference, besides the Layman report, the participants had copies of the Handbook of good practices produced by the FAGUS project and of the documentary that was projected as a pleasant break between the scientific presentations during the afternoon.


On the next day, the excursion to the Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga National Park took place. The participants were lead by the project staff in the project area of Prati di Tivo in order to view the concrete interventions. During the excursion, the replicability of the interventions was discussed both in other areas of the National Parks involved in the project and in other Natura 2000 areas, especially in relation to the priority status of the habitat.

The project is therefore almost finished, but we expect that the actions that were carried out represent a sound basis to have the actions of the project applied again in other beech forests of the Apennines.


FAGUS is among the projects supporting 25 years of LIFE & Foreste

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FAGUS is among the projects supporting 25 years of LIFE & Foreste!

For information about the event visit the website



Fagus teaser is now available

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We present a very short "work in progress" of the video-documentary about the project. The full version will be available within a couple of months at most, on the web and on DVD that will be distributed free during the final conference of the project in July 2017.




Fagus is the Project of the month!

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Fagus has been appointed as the project of the month by the "Ministero dell'Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare" (Italian Ministry for the environment), in particular by the "Direzione Generale per lo sviluppo sostenibile, per il danno ambientale e per i rapporti con l'Unione europea e gli organismi internazionali" (department of that ministery).

At the following links it is possible to see the web pages of the nomination with further informations and details.

Look who’s back: Rosalia Alpina back to visit us

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During a visit to one of the areas of intervention of the project near Prati di Tivo, we spotted two individuals of  Rosalia alpina.

It is a cerambycid beetle, typically inhabiting the beech forests of the Park that are in the older age phases. This species is easily distinguished by its pale blue color with three big velvety black spots on the elytrae (forewings). Rosalia alpina is related to the dead and decaying wood both in the larval and in the adult stage, especially dead wood lying on the ground, which is usually chosen as a breeding site.

Finding this species in the intervention areas of FAGUS is source of great satisfaction because it denotes the success of the concrete actions of the project: the implementation of measures that aim to increasing the structural heterogeneity of the forest through the creation of dead wood and habitat trees useful to foster the presence of birds and saproxylic organisms linked to this type of microhabitats just as the Rosalia alpina.

Furthermore, the Rosalia alpina is included in the Habitats Directive as a priority species, classified as vulnerable by the IUCN and included in Annex III of the Bern Convention. The main threat to this species is therefore represented by the destruction, loss and fragmentation of their habitat, the dead wood in the forest.


Download section update - Newsletter nr. 5

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The downloads section has been uploaded with the project deliverables.
It is now available also the fifth newsletter!

Fourth monitoring visit to FAGUS project in Monti Alburni SIC

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On 8 and 9 March 2016, the fourth monitoring visit to the project LIFE FAGUS was held in the Monti Alburni SCI.
During the first day, at the Museum of Natural Alburni in the old town center of Corleto Monforte, the evaluation of the technical aspects of the project through the analysis of the state of the art action by action, and the review of the administrative documents were carried out.
On this occasion, it was possible to visit the museum (, which is of particular interest since it has a rich collection of Vertebrates and Invertebrates of the European fauna (around 1200 European birds' species; over 60 mammals’ species and more than 20,000 specimens of crustaceans and insects).
The monitoring visit continued the following day with the practical verification of the conservation's concrete actions (C) implemented within the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni.
The Park's Director, Angelo De Vita, and the works supervisor, Emidio Nicolella, accompanied the monitor Riccardo Scalera, the National Contact Point of LIFE + Stefania Betti, and a number of project partners (Photo 1) at the forest stand of Ottati's municipality and at one of two stands of Corleto Monforte's municipality.
After verifying the existence of the notice boards placed near the access to the stands as foreseen by the project (photos 2-3), we proceeded checking on the field the planned actions C.
Ottati's forest stand was covered by a thick snow layer (Photo 4). During the visit it was possible to see: one of the fences erected to prevent grazing activities and to facilitate the regeneration of the tree species (Photo 5); different trees with nest holes; trees with basal slits (Photo 6); leaning and lying trees (Photo 7) and piles of deadwood in order to enhance the diversity of saproxylic organisms and of different species of fungi.
The visit to the Corleto stand was shorter and focused on the observation of the gaps created to foster the target species that in this area are represented by yew (Taxus baccata – Photo 8).


The concrete conservation actions are finished in the Gran Sasso e Monti della Laga National Park

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During this autumn the concrete conservation actions (actions C) of the Life FAGUS project were concluded in the intervention area of Venaquaro, within the Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga National Park. These actions were performed by foresters in about fifteen hectares of beech forest with yew and holly (Photo 1).
Among the various actions, thinning (C.2 Action) was specifically aimed at favoring the two species (i.e. yew and holly) that are considered as essential in the identification of a priority habitat (Habitat 9210*). Thinning resulted in about 750 m3 fuelwood and roundwood (Photo 2) that was given to the local administration that is in charge of using the forest on behalf of the citizenship of Intermesoli, of this amount of wood 198 m3 were directly used by the citizenship.
Besides thinning, techniques were applied with the specific aim of favoring animal and plant species typically associated with old-growth forests. Eleven gaps were created (Photo 3) leaving deadwood on the forest floor in order to create microhabitats for saproxilic communities (Photo 4), i.e. biological communities that need deadwood to develop and persist. The released deadwood encompassed different types in order to provide a range of microhabitats as wide as possible: 21 standing dead trees, 18 snags, 18 uprooted trees and five leaning trees were created.
Always pursuing the aim of favoring biodiversity, habitat trees were created: 16 trees with nest holes (Photo 5) to be used by various forest bird species, and nine trees with cavities for providing shelter to microfauna (Photo 6).
Since grazing activities may negatively affect the regeneration of yew and holly one area was fenced. The material for building the fences was transported through mules within the forests in order to cause the least disturbance to the ground layer vegetation and to the soil (Photo 7).

Photo 1Foresters after work  - Foto 1 Operai forestali dopo il lavoro.JPGVenaquaro Photo 2_ One of the gaps created in the Venaquaro - Foto 2 Una delle radure create nel bosco di Venaquaro.JPGVenaquaro Photo 3_wood to be used by citizenship - Foto 3 Legna dedicata all'uso civico.JPGVenaquaro Photo 4 Deadwood pile left for saproxylic organisms - Foto 4 Pila di legno morto per gli organismi saproxilici.JPG Venaquaro Photo 5 One of the nest_holes created in Venaquaro - Foto 5 Uno degli alberi-nido creati nel bosco di Venaqauro .JPGVenaquaro Photo 6 Cavity at the base of a tree - Foto 6 Cavità alla base di un albero.JPGVenaquaro Photo 7 Mules carrying the material to be used for fencing - Foto 7 Muli che trasportano il materiale per le recinzioni.JPG


Download section update - Deliverable and Newsletter nr. 4

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The downloads section has been uploaded with the project deliverables.
It is now available also the fourth newsletter!

The silvicultural intervention in the ‘Incodaro’ forest is now completed

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On November 8th, 2014, the selvicultural intervention in the ‘Incodaro’  forest (Gran Sasso and Monti dellaLaga National Park, municipality of Crognaleto) were finally completed. These interventions were part of the concrete conservation actions planned by the Life project FAGUS. Incodaro, is the second area (out of six) in which the interventions have been carried out so far, the first being Prati di Tivo (municipality of Pietracamela, Gran Sasso and Monti dellaLaga NP).
The intervention area was 11.23 ha, although only 6.16 were actually interested by the logging operations. The Incodaro forest, is a mixed stand of European beech and silver fir (Photo 1) that, according to the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC), can be referred to the priority habitat 9220*. The selvicultural interventions were aimed at promoting the natural regeneration of silver fir and beech (action C.2). At the same time, the interventions were also aimed at increasing the biodiversity of: i. the herbs and shrubs of the understoreyand tree-dwelling lichens (action C.4), ii. the fungi and insects that inhabit the decaying wood (action C.6) and, iii.the birds that need dead or senescing trees for building their nest of for foraging (action C.8).
Only a small fraction of logged timber was harvested (i.e. 174.24 m3 - Photo 2), in fact more than 450 m3 were cut into pieces and released in the forest. In this way, both the amount of deadwoodlying (Photo 3) and standing (Photo 4) in the forest was substantially increased (action C.6). Deadwood piles (Photo 5) were also left in the wood in order to create a suitable habitat for the saproxilic fauna, i.e. for those animals that require deadwood for shelter or as a food resource. The harvested timber was given to the forest management authority, i.e. the ‘State Forestry Corps’ (UTB of L’Aquila).
In agreement with the prescriptions of the actions C.2 and C.4, during the interventions a total of 21 gaps with various extent were created in the forest canopy (Photo 6). Forest workers also recreated the large variety of habitat trees that is usually found in unmanaged forests (action C.8): such as eight den trees, ten nest holes (Photo 7) and ten basal slits (Photo 8). All these structures may provide shelter to different animal species. For instance, the collared flycatcher (Ficedulaalbicollis) may benefit of the nest holes that were created in the Incodaro forest, and this is particularly relevant since this passerine bird, which is usually found in temperate forests, is a ‘priority specie’ according to the Habitats directive. The interventions also recreated other structures that concur at increasing the heterogeneity of the forest, such as four uprooted and four leaning trees (Photo 9).
Finally, the foresters set up three exclosures (with an extent of ca. 5000 m2each – Photo 10). These exclosures will protect the regenerating forest from grazing disturbance caused by domestic livestock and wild ungulates (especially wild boars). On the one hand, theseexclosures will protect the seedlings and young saplings of European beech and silver fir, on the other hand, they will allow researchers to test the effect of grazing on the flora and natural regeneration of the forest.
The goals of the LIFE FAGUS project and the rationale behind the selvicultural interventions were described in dedicated educational panels that were positioned beside the access road to the Incodaro Forest (Photo 11). Warm thanks go to those that worked with passion and dedication to realize these interventions, especially two small forest enterprises: ‘Masci Diego’ based in Tottea, Nerito (TE) that worked in Incodaro, and ‘D’AbbondanzaLegnami’ based in Intermesoli, Pietracamela (TE) that worked in Prati di Tivo. Further thanks go to Domenico Di Marco, who supervised the harvesting operations.



The concrete conservation action in the area of Prati di Tivo are finished

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On October 10th the concrete conservation actions (actions C) of the Life FAGUS project were concluded in the intervention area of Prati di Tivo, within the Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga National Park.

These actions were performed in about eight hectares of beech forest with yew and holly. Indeed, thinning was specifically aimed at favoring these two species that are considered as essential in the identification of a priority habitat (Habitat 9210*). Thinning resulted in about 390 m3 of fuelwood and roundwood that was given to the local administration that is in charge of using the forest on behalf of the citizenship of Pietracamela (Photo 1).

Besides thinning, some techniques were applied specially aimed at favoring biological diversity, and in particular animal and plant species typically associated with old-growth forests. In this view ten gaps were created (Photo 2) leaving deadwood on the forest floor in order to create microhabitats for saproxilic communities (Photo 3), i.e. biological communities that need deadwood to develop and persist. Foresters released deadwood of different types as it occurs in those forests that were less subjected to human disturbance: seven standing dead trees, five snags, five uprooted trees (Photo 4) and two leaning trees were created.

Furthermore, always pursuing the aim of favoring biodiversity, habitat trees were created: eleven trees with nest holes (Photo 5), and nine trees with cavities for collecting rainwater and for providing shelter to microfauna (Photo 6).

Finally, fences (Photo 7) were set up in two areas in order to avoid grazing activities and therefore to favor yew and holly regeneration (Photo 8). The material for building the fences was transported through mules within the forests in order to cause the least disturbance to the ground layer vegetation and to the soil (Photo 9).



Prati di Tivo Workshop: low-impact harvesting techniques especially suitable for restoration projects

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On the 29th and 30th of July in the project area of Prati Di Tivo (Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga National Park) the personnel of the Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF – Università degli Studi della Tuscia) organized a two-day workshop on low-impact harvesting techniques especially suitable for restoration projects.
The teacher of this course was Professor Sanzio Baldini, supported by Diego Giuliarelli, and the forest workers that attended the course were those  that will be involved in the project’s concrete conservation actions. Other stakeholders were present during the workshop, i.e. personnel of the State Forestry Corps, as well as personnel of the Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga National Park and researchers from the Department of Environmental Biology (DBA – Sapienza, University of Rome).
Firstly the teachers focused on personal safety issues to be taken into account while performing Low impact harvesting techniques (i.e. logging activities that have minimal residual impact on an area or the land).
Then specific harvesting techniques were explained and practically showed, such as:
Directional felling - Felling trees so that they fall in a predetermined direction which will cause the least damage to the site),
Skidding - Moving logs or felled trees from the stump to a landing, usually with the forward end supported off the ground,
Creation of habitat trees – basal slits (see picture), snags, leaning trees, etc.
In-field demonstration of tree climbing techniques (see picture) were performed (thanks to the courtesy of two professionals: David Rabbai and Francesco Mazzocchi).




Seminar Prof. P.C.Goebel - Rome, July, 3rd 2014 - Restoring complexity and ecosystem services in forest ecosystems by emulating natural disturbance processes

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July the 3rd 2014, 2.30 p.m., at "Istituto di Botanica dell'Universita di Roma La Sapienza - Aula Marini Bettolo"
Seminar Title: Restoring complexity and ecosystem services in forest ecosystems by emulating natural disturbance processes
Lecturer: Prof. Patrick C. Goebel
Environmental Science Network
The Ohio State University
Free entry.
The seminar will be in English language.

Fagus is now on Facebook, follow us!

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You can follow us on the internet address:

Keep in touch!

FAGUS project contributes to the knowledge and the conservation of lichen biodiversity

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Also during the FAGUS Life project the Apennine beech forests are confirmed as important repositories of lichen diversity. The pre-intervention monitoring fieldwork allowed to identify in both National Parks species of high scientific concern that will be specially taken into account during the concrete interventions to be carried out during the project.

Lichen diversity was evaluated on the three trees closest to the center of the monitoring plot and suitable for sampling. For each species we calculated the frequency on each tree through four grids made of five cells 10x10cm that are located on four sides of the tree (N,S, W, E) at about 1-1.5 meters from the ground. A total of 99 trees were sampled, on which 1086 lichen individuals were sampled.

Those specimens that were not identifiable in the field through a 20x lens were collected out of the monitoring plots and identified in the laboratory through specific keys and on the basis of proper monographic studies. The identification was performed through the use of microscope, stereomicroscope, UV lamp and chemical reagents that allow to point out metabolites useful for the species identification.

We identified 59 taxa: 3 at the genus level due to the early developmental stage of the collected specimens, 54 at the species level, and 3 at the subspecies level. Within the areas of the Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga National Park  43 different taxa were sampled, while in the Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni National Park 52 taxa were found; 36 taxa are shared between the two national parks.

Within the Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga National Park the area of Incodaro is of special interest due to the occurrence of the species Anaptychia crinalis (Schleich.) Vězda which is limited to moist beech forests and was never found within the Abruzzo region.

Through the sampling in the Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni National Park, besides Lecania hyalina (Fr.) R.Sant. that was never found in the National Park, and  Bryoria nadvornikiana (Gyeln.) Brodo & D.Hawksw. that was never signalled within the Campania region, we found important fertile populations of Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., especially in the Area of Corleto Monforte. This species is accurately and continuously monitored in several European countries. Indeed it has a highly fragmented distribution, with higher frequency values in western Europe and in areas with a Mediterranean climate. In central Europe it only occurs on isolated trees in small fragments, that are considered remnants of primary forests and it is often in decline.


Sonia Ravera, la lichenologa che ha coordinato il campionamento durante il lavoro in campo

Picture 1. Sonia Ravera, the lichenologist who led the sampling, during the fieldwork.

Lobaria pulmonaria

Picture 2. Lobaria pulmonaria.

Download section update - Public Tender for "Direzione Lavori"

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First meeting with the stakeholders at the PNGSML

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On December 10th 2013 starting from 10 a.m. up to 2 p.m. it will take place in Pietracamela (sala consiliare del Comune) the first meeting aimed at  sharing the actions for the definition of a ‘community contract’  for a new set of good practices that allow for forest sustainable use through both the conservation and enhancement of the cultural, economic and scientific value of forests. Such contract will be defined jointly by the institutions and the socio-economic stakeholders of the project areas.

This meeting is specially aimed at widening as much as possible the human dimension of the project allowing the provision of unique and useful contributions by all the stakeholders, ranging from the National Park, to direct users (ASBUC), State Forestry Corps (CFS), Townships, Region, Local associations, forest and tourism small enterprises.

This is the beginning of a long and complex process of participation that will continue in the next years in order to achieve the project goal of substantial involvement of all the stakeholders with the ultimate aim of defining a ‘community contract’.

This is in full continuity with the previous experience ‘Il Parco in ascolto’ and with other participatory choices that are driving the coexistence between the socio-economic activities and the public interest for conservation within the protected area. The meeting, as well as the other meetings that will be held for this project, will be performed through participative methods by professionals in this field.

Here is the link to the poster --> link.

Monitoring of saproxylic beetles: the more diverse the harder the work!

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This summer the monitoring to asses biodiversity before the interventions was carried out. The action A1 that includes such assessment is facing the time for species identification, and data entry and organization.

Among the sampled taxonomic groups (vascular plants, lichens, birds, lichens and saproxylic fungi and beetles) the one that requires the greatest effort in the identification is represented by saproxylic beetles.

We all know that insects are the most diverse and abundant animals that share our world, and we can imagine how numerous are insect species in priority habitats as those that are the focus of FAGUS project.Entomologist (Francesco Parisi) setting a window trap. (Photo: S. Antonucci).

Indeed in the 33 monitoring areas more 1000 specimens of insects were collected through window-traps and eclectors.

The performed trapping activity is strictly necessary for forest biodiversity sampling. These trapping techniques have a very low impact since they allow catching individuals that during their activities are intercepted by the traps by chance, as opposed to trapping systems that attract insects by volatile chemicals and that are non-selective with respect to the group of insects of interest. Indeed the trapping techniques that were used allow for a species-rich data collection through the trapping of a relatively low number of trapped individuals.

Window-flight trapping, also called flight-intercept trapping, is currently the most frequently used technique for catching flying active saproxylic beetles. Window flight traps consist of transparent verticals barrier that are invisible to the insect. On hitting the barrier, most beetles drop down and fall into a collection container with liquid preservatives.

Entomologist (Francesco Parisi) setting eclectors (Photo: S. Antonucci).


The eclector trap catches beetles leaving decaying wood by means of an enclosure. Among the advantages of this method are: the strict selection of saproxylic organisms, and the fact that it does not cause any damage to deadwood and other forest microhabitats.

The great majority (about 95%) of the collected specimens belongs to the order of Coleoptera. All of these should be identified in order to find out which are the ones specially related to dead wood, also because no data on the ecology of all forest species exist.



The collected specimens are now being sorted and pinned. The pinned specimens are then organized in families and genera. In order to give a specific name to many of the beetles collected in the field these should be properly ordered so that their characteristic traits are visible, and in many cases an expert for a specific family or genus should be involved. (Photos: Serena Antonucci; Entomologist at work: Francesco Parisi).

Entomologist (Francesco Parisi) sorting the collected insects. (Photo: S. Antonucci).Entomologist (Francesco Parisi) pinning the collected insects. (Photo: S. Antonucci).

Newsletter Number 2/2013

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The Newsletter Number 2 of the "Fagus" LIFE+11 Project (NAT/IT/000135) is online.

Ukraine conference & FAGUS Poster

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At the beginning of June a conference was held in Ukraine whose topic was greatly consistent with the objectives of the Life FAGUS project. The title of the conference was Primeval Beech Forests: Reference Systems for the Management and Conservation of Biodiversity, Forest Resources and Ecosystem Services.

Presentation forum of the FAGUS project

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The 28th of May 2013 the presentation forum of the FAGUS project was held at the Centro Studi Biodiversità (Vallo della Lucania) within the Parco Nazionale del Cilento, Vallo della Lucania e Alburni.

First field surveys for the definition of the monitoring plan

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Abies alba in the area of Incodaro.jpg

The weather is still not at his best, yet the first field surveys started for the life FAGUS project.